The stupa (“stupa” is Sanskrit for heap) is an important form of Buddhist architecture, though it predates Buddhism. It is generally considered to be a sepulchral monument—a place of burial or a receptacle for religious objects. At its simplest, a stupa is a dirt burial mound faced with stone.
The Stupa is also known by synonymous names such as Chaithya, Dagaba, Thupa, Seya and Vehera. Stupas designed and constructed in Sri Lanka are the largest brick structures known to the pre-modern world.
Buddhist stupas were originally built to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha and his associates and are almost invariably found at sites sacred to Buddhism. The concept of a relic was afterward extended to include sacred texts.
Mission San Juan Capistrano, historic landmark and museum, is the Birthplace of Orange County. It was founded more than two hundred years ago as the 7th of 21 missions statewide and features a chapel still standing where Saint Serra once celebrated Mass. Today, it is a monument to California’s multi-cultural history, embracing its Native American, Spanish, Mexican and European heritage. Originally built as a self sufficient community by Spanish Padres and Native Americans, the Mission was a center for agriculture, industry, education and religion. Famous for the Annual Return of the Swallows, Mission San Juan Capistrano is the “Jewel of the California Missions” and welcomes over 300,000 visitors each year.
Mission San Juan Capistrano has been home to many people over its 240 years of history. Its history consists of memories and stories of its past inhabitants and present visitors. It is a place of historical, cultural, and religious significance, as well as a place of inspiration and education.
Mission San Juan Capistrano was permanently founded by Junipero Serra on November 1, 1776, as the seventh of 21 missions to be established in California by the Spanish. It had originally been started at the end of the October 1775, but it had to be abandoned after only a week.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument located in Lahore, Pakistan. The tower was built between 1960 and 1968 on the site where the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution on 23 March 1940 – the first official call for a separate and independent homeland for the Muslims of British India, as espoused by the two-nation theory. The resolution eventually helped lead to the emergence of an independent Pakistani state in 1947. The tower construction was started in 1960 and it took 8 years to complete in 1968. The estimated budget to complete the great construction is near Rs.70 Lakh (7 million). Money to complete this project is collected from Pakistani people to charge 10 to 15 Rs. extra tax at theater/cinema. It is a combination of Islamic as well as national culture. The tower base is shaped like a flower. The monument is covered with parks and flowers. Its location is used for political and religious events. It is also known as the “Liberty Tower of Pakistan”.The tower reflects a blend of Mughal/Islamic and modern architecture.The tower was designed and supervised by, Nasreddin Murat-Khan a Russian-born Pakistani architect and civil engineer. The foundation stone was laid on 23 March 1960. Construction took eight years and was completed on 21 October 1968 at an estimated cost of Rs 7,058,000. The money was collected by imposing an additional tax on cinema and horse racing tickets at the demand of Akhter Husain, governor of West Pakistan. Today, the minaret provides a panoramic view to visitors who can climb up the stairs or access the top, by means of an elevator. The parks around the monument include marble fountains and an artificial lake.The base is about 8 meters above the ground. The tower rises about 62 meters on the base, the total height of the minar is about 70 meters above the ground. The unfolding petals of the flower-like base are 9 meters high. The diameter of the tower is about 9.75 meters. The rostrum is built of patterned tiles and faces Badshahi Mosque. The base comprises four platforms. To symbolize the humble beginning of the freedom struggle, the first platform is built with uncut stones from Taxila, the second platform is made of hammer-dressed stones, whereas the third platform is chiseled stones. Polished white marble at the fourth and final platform depicts the success of the Pakistan Movement.At the base, there are floral inscriptions on ten converging white marble Commemorative plaques. The inscriptions include the text of Lahore Resolution in Urdu, Bengali, and English, and the Delhi Resolution’s text, which was passed on 9 April 1946. On different plaques, Quranic verses and 99 names of Allah are inscribed in Arabic calligraphy, whereas National Anthem of Pakistan in Urdu and Bengali, excerpts from the speeches of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in Urdu, Bengali, and English, along with few couplets of Allama Iqbal include the other important inscriptions.
The Cape Neddick Light is a lighthouse in Cape Neddick, York, Maine. In 1874 Congress appropriated $15,000 to build a light station at the “Nubble” and in 1879 construction began. Cape Neddick Light Station was dedicated by the U.S. Lighthouse Service and put into use in 1879. It is still in use today.
Plans had been in the works to build a lighthouse on the site since 1837. The tower is lined with brick and sheathed with cast iron. It stands 41 feet (12 m) tall but the light is 88 feet (27 m) above sea level because of the additional height of the steep rocky islet on which it sits. Unusually, the stanchions of the walkway railing around the lantern room are decorated with 4-inch (100 mm) brass replicas of the lighthouse itself.
Rohtas Fort is a 16th-century fortress located near the city of Jhelum in the Pakistani province of Punjab.The fortress was built during the reign of Sher Shah Suri between 1541 and 1548. The fort was also designed to suppress the local Gakhar tribes of the Potohar region. The Gakhar tribes were allies of the Mughal Empire, and refused to recognize the suzerainty of Sher Shah Suri. The fort is one of the largest and most formidable in the subcontinent. Rohtas Fort was never stormed by force and has survived remarkably intact.
The fort is known for its large defensive walls, and several monumental gateways. Rohtas Fort was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1997 for being an “exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of Central and South Asia.
Ta Prohm is a temple in Angkor, Cambodia. Located approximately one kilometer east of Angkor Thom and on the southern edge of the East Baray near Tonle Bati, Ta Prohm has been left in much the same condition in which it was found. Huge trees, reminiscent of ancient redwoods and oaks, are blended into the walls, and rocks hugging the giant roots give the temple a surreal appearance. The photogenic and atmospheric combination of trees growing out of the ruins and the jungle surroundings have made it one of Angkor’s most popular temples with visitors.
The temple of Ta Prohm was used as a location in the film Tomb Raider. Although the film took visual liberties with other Angkorian temples, its scenes of Ta Prohm were quite faithful to the temple’s actual appearance and made use of its eerie qualities.